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The 4 quadrants and the 5 stages

May 31, 2009
The 4 quadrants and Salmon's 5 stages

The 4 quadrants and Salmon's 5 stages

Further thoughts on approaches to learning and teaching, this time integrated into Salmon’s five-stage model for e-learning.

4 Comments leave one →
  1. Carola Steinberg permalink
    October 20, 2009 11:12 am

    An interesting development of the learning and teaching model – it is good to have a sense of how the learning path develops.
    It made me wonder about the role of the educator – why are socialising, sharing information, collaboration placed entirely on the side of the learner? It is true that these activities are not controlled by the educator, but they might well be inspired by, initiated by, focussed and guided by the educator who sets the tasks and provides feedback. In my expereince, it is difficult to maintain the impetus for learning without the encouragement of an educator, especially over time.

    • witthaus permalink
      October 21, 2009 7:19 pm

      I think I didn’t explain myself very clearly here. (Actually I see I didn’t explain the diagram at all!) The left-to-right axis moves from activities done by learners as individuals (on the left) towards activities involving interaction between learners (on the right). The bottom-to-top axis looks at the amount of teacher control – more control at the bottom and more freedom for learners at the top. Hope this makes more sense now!

  2. Carola Steinberg permalink
    October 22, 2009 8:57 am

    Thank you, that helps.
    Now the next question – where in the stages is there place for ‘gaining information / understanding’? I know that we all learn a lot by sharing information, i.e. increased understanding comes through talking/writing about a topic – but there needs to be a level of gaining and understanding i.e. reading information before it can be meaningfully shared. I’ve seen students have the technical skills to copy efficiently from internet sources (which in this model I presume they would learn during the access phase) – but that information is not alive for them or they misunderstand what they have copied.
    So I suppose what I am concerned with is the educator’s role in the socialization / sharing information phases. It is not just a case of setting students on the path in the access phase and then letting them loose by releasing control – instead, it requires a whole lot of different kinds of input from the educator to support productive learning.

  3. witthaus permalink
    November 30, 2009 1:10 am

    Hi Carola

    I just realised I didn’t reply to this comment at the time – apologies!

    I agree with your point. I recently piloted a model for collaborative knowledge construction by Gunawardena et al called the WisCom model ( with SAIDE. A flow chart showing my application of the model is at (It might be a bit obscure – it wasn’t designed for public consumption, but you’ll get the gist!)

    The five steps are:
    1) Explain the learning challenge (task) to the learners
    2) Initial exploration (writing down what you know about the subject)
    3) Consulting resources (individuals do some reading)
    4) Reflection and organisation (individuals write their revised thoughts, informed by the reading)
    5) Negotiation and preservation (shared process that culminates in a document that encapsulates the learning)

    The great thing about this model is the way in which it interweaves individual work with interactive work. I think it begins to answer your last question… (Or at least it seems to be as good a place as any to start!)


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